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全球猪病监测报告2020年4月(下)

来源: 猪译馆 2021-05-28 14:45:16| 查看:

  译者的话:
  

  非瘟四月,四月非瘟。根据世界动物卫生组织的官方统计数据,非瘟疫情增长超过65%,中国大陆的发言代表还一致认为中国实际的疫情可能远远超过官方报告的182起,其中,由于生猪以及猪产品的运输导致的非瘟传播在中国占传播途径的88.9%,对比美国和加拿大的关于边界野猪非瘟的未雨绸缪以及德国两个白色缓冲区域的建立,不由莫名感慨--“恨关羽不能张飞”。关于非瘟疫苗,有报道全球某知名动保公司在菲律宾进行非瘟疫苗实验,同期,FAO和OIE的官方警告:目前,世界上还没有经过授权的有效和安全的非瘟疫苗。全球猪病监测4月报告,有请品鉴。
  
  全球猪病监测报告2020年4月(下)
  
  Swine Disease Global Surveillance Report, Apr. 2021-part2
  
  接上文...
  
  非洲猪瘟
  
  African Swine Fever
  
  05
  
  欧洲 EUROPE
  
  罗马尼亚 Romania
  
  4月1日,罗马尼亚国家卫生兽医和食品安全局(ANSVSA)发布了一份新的声明,更新了非洲猪瘟的现状。根据这份报告,该国目前有409起活跃的疫情,影响到10多万头猪。
  
  On April 1, the Romanian National Sanitary Veterinary and Food Safety Authority (ANSVSA) released a new statement updating the current situation of ASF. According to this report, there are currently 409 active outbreaks in the country, affecting over 100,000 animals.
  
  在409起疫情中,有7起发生在商品猪场,6起发生在A类商品猪场。
  
  From the 409 outbreaks, seven are in commercial holdings, and six outbreaks in type A commercial.
  
  在欧盟家猪中出现非洲猪瘟四年之后,只有罗马尼亚如今仍然有如此多的疫情。目前家猪疫情共计200余起,导致成千上万头猪被扑杀。截至3月3日,罗马尼亚新增231例家猪非传染性猪瘟病例。与此同时,所有欧洲国家的ASF病例数为零。
  
  Four years after the appearance of ASF in domestic pigs in the European Union, only Romania still registers this number of cases. More than 200 outbreaks have been reported on farms since then, leading to thousands of animals’ culling. To understand the magnitude of the contrast between scenarios, by March 3, Romania had 231 new ASF cases in domestic pigs. Simultaneously, the number of cases of ASF in all European states was zero.
  
  相比之下,大多数欧洲国家都在对抗野猪非洲猪瘟。但即便如此,根据同一资料来源,罗马尼亚仍以512例病例居首位,位居匈牙利(1371例)、波兰(977例)和斯洛伐克(531例)之后。
  
  In contrast, most European countries are battling ASF among wild boar. But even then, Romania occupies a leading place with 512 cases, after Hungary (1371), Poland (977), and Slovakia (531), according to the same source.
  
  图片
  
  地图2:罗马尼亚报告的非洲猪瘟疫情的分布。
  
  Map 2. Global distribution of reported ASF outbreaks in Romania.
  
  实际的影响
  
  The actual impact
  
  罗马尼亚猪肉生产者协会(APCPR)总统Ioan Ladoşi上周对当地新闻媒体说,与2017年非洲猪瘟出现前的60%相比,如今罗马尼亚本地猪场供应的猪肉尚不能满足30%的需求。
  
  The president of the Association of Romanian Pork Producers (APCPR), Ioan Ladoşi, said last week to a local news media that local farms do not supply more than 30% of the demand for pork in Romania, compared to 60% in 2017, before the appearance of swine fever.
  
  他还提到,2020年罗马尼亚屠宰了370万头猪,与2019年的420万头相比下降了12%。
  
  He also mentioned that in 2020 3.7 million pigs were slaughtered, down 12% compared to 2019, when 4.2 million pigs arrived at slaughterhouses.
  
  最近,农业部长Adrian Oros表示,非洲猪瘟造成的年度赤字超过6亿欧元(7.08亿美元)。全国共计360万头育肥猪的饲养规模,现存栏不足90万头。其余的猪场都已破产或空置。此外,政府每年还支付数亿元的赔偿金。
  
  Recently, Minister of Agriculture Adrian Oros stated that ASF had caused an annual deficit of more than 600 million euros (US$708 million). Out of the 3.6 million accommodation places for fattening pigs, not more than 900,000 are currently occupied. The rest are in empty bankrupt farms. Moreover, each year, the government has paid hundreds of millions in compensation.
  
  06
  
  亚洲 ASIA
  
  菲律宾 The Philippines
  
  今年3月,中国、越南、印度尼西亚、韩国、菲律宾、东帝汶-莱斯特、印度和马来西亚等9个国家报告了新的非洲猪瘟疫情。
  
  In March, nine countries - China, Vietnam, Indonesia, South Korea, the Philippines, Timor-Lester, India, and Malaysia - reported new ASF outbreaks.
  
  自2018年以来,亚洲爆发了1.2万多次疫情,损失了700万头生猪。世界动物卫生组织报告的损失是根据疫情爆发期间通报的受感染农场或后院养猪的死亡和扑杀动物总数计算的。不包括为应对疫情而采取的额外控制措施的影响,比如在疫情爆发的周边地区进行预防性扑杀。
  
  Since 2018, the region has registered over 12,000 outbreaks with 7 million pig losses. The losses reported by the OIE are calculated based on the sum of dead and culled animals in the infected farm or backyard premises notified within the outbreaks. It doesn’t include the impact of additional control measures applied in response to the outbreaks, such as preventative culling in a zone around an outbreak.
  
  目前,该地区14个国家有超过1400起官方报道的活跃疫情。
  
  Currently, there are over 1,400 ongoing official outbreaks across 14 countries.
  
  地图3:截止4月1日通报的亚洲疫情(来源:粮农组织)
  
  Map 3. Notified outbreaks in Asia until April 1st (Source: FAO)
  
  菲律宾 The Philippines
  
  3月29日,邻近雷特岛的萨马岛首次确诊非洲猪瘟,疫情爆发与北萨马省Lope de Vega的一家后院农场,一名游客被怀疑是此次疫情的传播途径。
  
  On March 29, ASF was confirmed for the first time in Samar Island, neighboring Layte Island. The disease was confirmed on backyard farms in Lope de Vega, Northern Samar Province, a visitor, is suspected as the route of introduction into the farm.
  
  今年3月,菲律宾当局报道,自2019年7月首次爆发以来,ASF已经蔓延到菲律宾的12个区域、40个省、466个城市和直辖市、以及2425个社区。已导致损失300万头猪,整个国家宣布进入紧急状态。
  
  In March, the Philippine authorities reported that since the first outbreak detected in July 2019, ASF has spread to 12 regions, 40 provinces, 466 cities and municipalities, and 2,425 communities in the Philippines to date, causing a loss of over 3 million pigs, taking the country to declare the national emergency.
  
  中国 China
  
  今年3月,中国当局报告了四川、湖北、云南、湖南和新疆维吾尔自治区的新发非洲猪瘟疫情(地图4)。
  
  In March, Chinese authorities reported new ASF cases in Sichuan, Hubei, Yunnan, Hunan Provinces, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Map 4).
  
  1.  3月初,在四川、湖北和云南发现了非洲猪瘟疫情。
  
  Earlier in March, ASF cases were detected in Sichuan, Hubei, and Yunnan Provinces.
  
  2.  3月2日,云南省查获36只非法运输的感染动物。
  
  On 3/2, Yunnan authorities seized 36 infected animals illegally transported
  
  3.  3月6日,有关部门报告了四川(127头猪的猪场,38头死亡)和湖北(查获运输165头感染仔猪的车辆)两省爆发疫情。
  
  On 3/6, authorities reported outbreaks in both Sichuan (farm of 127 heads, 38 animals died) and Hubei (vehicle seized transporting 165 infected piglets) provinces
  
  4.  3月9日,四川当局查获10头非法运输的猪(2头死亡)。
  
  On 3/9, Sichuan authorities seized 10 pigs (two died) illegally transported.
  
  5.  3月24日,新疆伊犁州的一家猪场爆发疫情。
  
  In Xinjiang, an outbreak occurred on March 24 in Yili prefecture on a domestic farm.
  
  6.  3月27日,一辆非法运入湖南的运猪车在长沙检测到非洲猪瘟。
  
  In Hunan, ASF was detected in Changsa County, Changsa City, on March 27 on a truck of pigs being transported into Hunan illegally.
  
  地图4:中国非洲猪瘟疫情。
  
  Map 4. ASF in China

  07
  
  传播途径更新
  
  Transmission routes updates
  
  今年2月,亚洲非洲猪瘟论坛常设专家小组举行了虚拟会议。各地区代表分享了当前非洲猪瘟的最新情况和控制进展。
  
  In February, the Standing Group of Experts on ASF for Asia met virtually. Regional representatives shared updates on the current ASF situation and progress with control.
  
  下面是中国代表发言的概要和要点:
  
  Here a summary with the highlights of the presentation done by the Chinese delegate is presented:
  
  注:需要强调的是,许多专家一致认为,中国的实际疫情数可能远远超过官方报告的182起(猪场:148起;屠宰场:7;运输:21;野猪:6)。
  
  Note: It needs to be highlighted that many experts agree that the real number of cases in China may  be significantly over the officially reported number of outbreaks in China of 182 total cases (farms: 148; slaughterhouse: 7; transportation: 21, wildboar: 6).
  
  ● 传播途径所占比例因疫情阶段的不同而有很大变化:
  
  The proportion of transmission routes change significantly depending on the phase of the epidemic:

  图2:非洲猪瘟在中国的传播途径
  
  Figure 2. Transmission routes in China
  
  ● 生物安全改善,83.2%的猪场实施了20项生物安全措施,大型猪场的合规水平最高:
  
  Biosecurity improvements, 83.2 % farms implementing 20 biosecurity measures, large scale farms with the highest levels of compliance:
  
  图3:不同规模猪场的生物安全合规程度。
  
  Figure 3. Level of biosecurity compliance across different farm scale
  
  08
  
  中国猪场ASF变异株监测
  
  Monitoring ASF Variant Strains in Chinese Pig Farms
  
  3月22日,中国畜牧兽医局发布了由非洲猪瘟国家参比实验室开发的《猪场非洲猪瘟变异毒株监测技术指南》。
  
  On March 22, the Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Bureau released Technical Guidelines for Monitoring African Swine Fever Variant Strains in Pig Farms developed by the National ASF Reference Laboratory.
  
  09
  
  非法疫苗
  
  Illegal Vaccines
  
  3月29日,粮农组织/世界兽疫局亚太区域秘书处向首席兽医官们发出了关于该区域未获许可使用非洲猪瘟疫苗的警告信。
  
  On March 29, an alert letter on unlicensed ASF vaccine use in the region was sent out to Chief Veterinary Officers (CVOs) by the regional secretariat for FAO/OIE GF-TADs for Asia and the Pacific.
  
  粮农组织和世界动物卫生组织亚洲及太平洋地区,连同世界动物卫生组织设在澳大利亚疾病防备中心的非洲猪瘟参考实验室和其他非洲猪瘟专家,正在努力收集更多的信息。不过,有必要强调以下几点:
  
  The FAO and OIE in Asia and the Pacific, together with OIE Reference Laboratory for ASF at the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness and other ASF experts, are working to gather more information. Still, it is essential to emphasize the following:
  
  ● 目前,世界上还没有经过授权的有效和安全的ASF疫苗。
  
  There is currently no authorized ASF vaccine with proven effectiveness and safety available in the world.
  
  ● 生物安全仍然是预防和控制非洲猪瘟最重要、最有效的措施。
  
  Biosecurity is still the most important and most effective measure for the prevention and control of ASF.
  
  ● 使用未经证实的安全性或有效性的ASF疫苗既不能预防也不能控制ASF疫情,并会对整个养猪业,包括国内外小型养猪场,构成严重威胁。
  
  The use of ASF vaccines with unproven safety or efficacy will neither prevent nor control ASF outbreaks and represents a serious threat to the whole pig industry, including smallholders within a country and beyond.
  
  图片
  
  图5:显示整个3月份报告的疫情地点。蓝色:1-状态无变化;红色:2 -需要额外的关注,因为情况是动态的;黑色:3 -需要考虑改变操作,以降低风险。
  
  Map 5. Location of the outbreaks reported throughout December. Blue: 1 - no change in status; Red: 2 - needs extra attention as the situation is dynamic; Black: 3 - requires consideration or change in practices to reduce exposure to the US swine industry
  
  完结.
  
  The end.

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